Pakistan has witnessed major expansion in the scale of cash transfer programmes targeted to the chronically poor and as disaster relief and rehabilitation. The World Bank commissioned ICF-GHK, in partnership with the Collective for Social Science Research and Associates in Development (AID), to undertake an assessment of the Financial Inclusion and Literacy (FIL) outcomes of such cash transfer programmes and their various payment modalities. The two specific cash transfer programmes which were reviewed were the Benazir Income Support Programme (BISP) and the Citizen Damage Compensation Programme (CDCP) or the Watan Card scheme. The assessment compares alternate payment mechanisms such as the Pakistan Post Office, Smart Cards, Debit Cards, mobile phone technology and the interface provided with the banking sector through ATM machines, Point of Sale terminals, branchless banking agent networks and bank branches. The project was based on the collection of primary sample survey data supported by a qualitative survey in 16 selected communities across the four provinces. The Collective was responsible for the collection and analysis of qualitative data and for the collection of the sample survey data in Sindh.