(October 2018 - )Maintaining Essential Services after Natural Disasters (MAINTAINS) is a five-year research programme funded by Department for International Development (DFID) UK. It aims to develop an improved evidence base on how education, health, social protection, nutrition, and water and sanitation services can adapt and expand in response to covariate shocks such as floods, droughts, earthquakes and extreme temperatures. A central component of MAINTAINS is the understanding and identification of better disaster risk financing practices, essential for the achievement of shock responsive services. Collective is the research partner for MAINTAINS in Pakistan. The consortium is led by Oxford Policy Management Limited (OPML) and runs in five other countries including Bangladesh, Kenya, Uganda, Sierra Leone, and Ethiopia.